Year of Palladio

The Five-Part House

Like the Gibbs design, Mount Airy incorporates the Palladian practice of connecting the main block to service structures by the use of connectors or hyphens, in this case curved hyphens. This was a compositional arrangement used by Palladio in several of his villa designs, one that connected service areas to the main block to form a pleasingly balanced architectural ensemble. One of the most influential of Palladioís multi-sectioned villa schemes was that produced for the Barbaro family at Maser, near Vicenza _. The Villa Barbaro consists of a center section fronted by an engaged portico, which is flanked by long arcaded hyphens connecting to terminal wings housing stables and a winery. This linear five-part composition gained popularity in 18th-century America, resulting in numerous architecturally noteworthy dwellings. An early example of the five-part type is the 1768 villa, Battersea, in Petersburg, Virginia _(Figure 32). Battersea acquired a more Italian look in the early 19th century when its brick walls were stuccoed and the Palladian-style windows added to the terminal wings.

The five-part composition found particular favor in 18th-century Maryland.An abbreviated list would include the 1790s Wye House, in Talbot County, and the ca. 1790 house, Kennersley near Centerville. Three well-known Annapolis mansions: the 1765 William Paca House, the James Brice House of ca. 1770 _, and the 1774 Hammond-Harwood House, designed by William Buckland, are striking examples of late-colonial five-part houses, although their general character is more English Georgian than strictly Palladian _(Figure 34).The popularity of the five-part composition continued well into the first half of the 19th century. Examples of the form are scattered throughout the eastern United States, from Massachusetts to Kentucky and Tennessee. Among the most famous Federal-period five-part houses is Homewood in Baltimore, built for Charles Carroll, Jr. in 1801-03. Homewood is an eye-catching illustration of how the Palladian form could be interpreted in the delicately elegant Adamesque or Federal style _. During this same time the noted architect, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, was producing a number of five-part composition house designs in more of an English Regency mode, with stuccoed walls and minimal ornament.Regrettably, few of Latrobeís house designs were built, and none of his five-part schemes survives.A little known and comparatively late example of a Palladian five-part house is Moss Neck Manor, near Fredericksburg, Virginia, erected in the 1850s for the Corbin family. Extending 255 feet from end to end, and fronted by a two-level portico, the house is an arresting commentary on the Palladian influence on an anonymous country builder/architect _(Figure 36).

Figure 30
Figure 30
Figure 31
Figure 31
Figure 32
Figure 32
Figure 33
Figure 33
Figure 34
Figure 34
Figure 35
Figure 35
Figure 36
Figure 36

The Loggia | The Five-Part House | The Seven-Part House

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