# Andrea Palladio

### (1508-1580)

*A bibliography is made available for further reading; it contains full citations for the references used in this bio, along with several other important works related to Palladio.*

- The first two quotations are from Lionello Puppi,
*Andrea Palladio*, p. 27; the third is from Bruce Boucher,*Andrea Palladio: The Architect in his Time*, p. 20. - This first-hand architectural information eventually became source material for Palladio’s first two publications,
*Le antichità di Roma*and*Descrizione della chiese di Roma*, both published in 1554, as well as for Book IV of his treatise,*I quattro libri dell’architettura*, published in 1570. - Andrea Palladio,
*I quattro libri dell’architettura*, Book I, chapter i, p. 6–7 [p. 7]; similar statements are found in Book II, chapters i–ii, p. 3–4 [p. 77–78]. - Note Puppi’s quotes of Barbaro in the following: “For Barbaro the scientific basis of knowledge was to be found in mathematics, … [and] he concludes that ‘some arts have more of science and others less’, and the ‘more worthy’ are ‘those wherein the art of numeracy, geometry, and mathematics is required’.” See Lionello Puppi,
*Andrea Palladio*, p. 18; Puppi cites his quotes as D. Barbaro, 1556, p. 7, i.e., from Barbaro’s translation and commentary of Vitruvius. - Colin Rowe,
*The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays*, p. 1–27. - Rudolf Wittkower,
*Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism*, p. 104 ff. Wittkower bases his analysis on the dimensions given in Palladio’s treatise. Two articles providing more in depth analyses related to Wittkower’s appear in the*Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians*: Deborah Howard and Malcolm Longair, “Harmonic Proportion and Palladio’s*Quattro Libri*"; and Branko Mitrovi, “Palladio’s Theory of Proportions and the Second Book of the*Quattro Libri dell’Architettura.*" A more exhaustive study of potential proportional sources for Palladio is available in Lionel March,*Architectonics of Humanism: Essays on Number in Architecture*; indeed, Palladio’s corpus certainly supports March’s claim (p. xii): “In truth the Renaissance might be called the era of conspicuous erudition in which patrons, scholars and artists displayed their breadth of classical learning in various works and commissions.” - See, for example, two articles in the
*Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians*: Henry A. Millon, “Rudolf Wittkower,*Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism*: Its Influence on the Development and Interpretation of Modern Architecture”; and Alina A. Payne, “Rudolf Wittkower and Architectural Principles in the Age of Modernism.” - See the chapter “Palladianism Today” in Branko Mitrovi’s
*Learning from Palladio*, p. 171–187, where he carefully analyzes and counters arguments against the use of classicism today, especially regarding the issue of appropriateness to time, and offers several examples of contemporary Palladian architecture. - The principal competitor, over the years, to Palladio’s treatise has been Giacopo Barozzi da Vignola,
*Regola delli cinque ordini*, first published in 1563; while some prefer Vignola’s canon of the five orders, his treatise lacked the plethora of drawings available in Books II through IV of*I quattro libri dell’architettura*. - See Andrea Palladio, I quattro libri dell’architettura, Book I, chapters xii–xix; cf. Mitrovi,
*Learning from Palladio*, p. 149. - Andrea Palladio,
*I quattro libri dell’architettura*, Book I, chapter xxi, p. 52 [p. 57]; the full text is:

There are seven types of room that are the most beautiful and well proportioned and turn out better: they can be made circular, though these are rare; or square; or their length will equal the diagonal of the square of the breadth; or a square and a third; or a square and a half; or a square and two-thirds; or two squares.

Palladio also gives constructions for the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means in Book I, chapter xxiii, p. 53–54 [p. 58–59], and he recommends choosing from them to find a vaulted room’s height given its length and width.

- Palladio included his Basilica amongst the public architecture in Book III, which is otherwise dominated by bridge design.